TARGET stands for Treat Antibiotics Responsibly, Guidance, Education and Tools. It is a toolkit designed to support primary care clinicians to champion and implement antimicrobial stewardship activities. The resources can also be used to support CPD and revalidation requirements.
All TARGET resources are reviewed every two to four years, depending on the specific resource, or more frequently if there are significant developments in the field. Any resource changes will be highlighted here: TARGET resource - publication and review
We publish two TARGET Antibiotics newsletters a year highlighting resource updates, new developments, publications and any planned future work that you may wish to be involved in.
Optimising management of UTIs in primary care: a qualitative study of patient and GP perspectives to inform the development of an evidence-based, shared decision-making resource.
Development of an information leaflet and diagnostic flow chart to improve the management of urinary tract infections in older adults; A qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.
Is sharing the TARGET respiratory tract infection leaflet feasible in routine general practice to improve patient education and appropriate antibiotic use? A mixed methods study in England with patients and healthcare professionals.
Improving Management of Respiratory Tract Infections in Community Pharmacies and Promoting Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cluster Randomised Control Trial with a Self-Report Behavioural Questionnaire and Process Evaluation.
Effects of primary care antimicrobial stewardship outreach on antibiotic use by general practice staff: pragmatic randomized controlled trial of the TARGET antibiotics workshop., https://doi:10.1093/jac/dky004
Qualitative study using interviews and focus groups to explore the current and potential for antimicrobial stewardship in community pharmacy informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework.
Effectiveness of Behavioural Interventions to Reduce Urinary Tract Infections and E. coli Bacteraemia for Older Adults Across all Care Settings: A Systematic Review.
Qualitative study to explore the views of general practice staff on the use of point-of-care C reactive protein testing for the management of lower respiratory tract infections in routine general practice in England.
An evaluation of the TARGET (Treat Antibiotics Responsibly; Guidance, Education, Tools) Antibiotics Toolkit to improve antimicrobial stewardship in primary care—is it fit for purpose?https://doi:10.1093/fampra/cmx131
Educating patients on antimicrobial use is key to combating resistance. Guidelines in Practice 2017.
Common infections: when is the right time to prescribe an antimicrobial? In Guidelines in Practice, 2017.
Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance. International journal of microbiology 2016, 2016.
Designing the TARGET patient leaflet: a resource for patient consultations to improve appropriate antibiotic prescribing in Primary Care. Nursing in Practice 2015. https://doi:10.3390/antibiotics6030016
Have the public's expectations for antibiotics for acute uncomplicated respiratory tract infections changed since the H1N1 influenza pandemic? A qualitative interview and quantitative questionnaire study.
The TARGET resources were first developed by the Antimicrobial Stewardship in Primary Care (ASPIC) collaboration which was established in 2009 and includes: UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA); Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP); Department of
Health (DH); British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC); Care Quality Commission (CQC); British Infection Association (BIA); Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS); National Prescribing Centre (NPC); Infection Prevention Society (IPS);
British Paediatric Allergy, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Group (BPAIIG); Royal College of Nursing (RCN); Health Protection Scotland (HPS); Public Health Wales; Public Health Agency Northern Ireland; NHS Information Centre; and interested
Health Care Professionals.
The ASPIC collaboration, working closely with primary care, has assessed current guidelines and other materials and, within a series of workshops, agreed the content of the TARGET Antibiotics Toolkit to promote antimicrobial stewardship.
Over time the TARGET group, led by UKHSA, have collaborated with many expert organisations and institutes to develop the evidence based TARGET antibiotics toolkit, these include but are not limited to:
NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at Imperial College London
NIHR HPRU in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at the University of Oxford